With the development of technology, comes a passing of the torch for programming languages.

With historic ties back to Ada Lovelace in 1842, programming has become an essential tool for development in tech, from hand-written assembly language programmes in the 40s to the incredibly developed available today. Gone are the days of Fortran, COBOL, Algol and APL, replaced with many of those listed below. As somewhat of a directory, we have collated the most 'in demand' languages in 2020 as well as their difficulty and links to free resources to start your learning journey.  


Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. For many, Python is suggested as an easy to understand, flexible and beginner friendly programming language. With no classpath issues, Python is easy to install and get started. It should also be recognized that there is a huge Python community which are quick to be on-hand with any questions and encourage those beginning their journey into coding. Through the learning of Python, you then open many door in regard to employment, with a range of roles including analyst, developer and product management roles available. Interested? You can access some great free python beginner resources below:


Javascript considers itself one of the more varied programming resources, catering to both beginners and advanced developers in the data science community. Beneficial to many, Javascript uses simple syntax making it an easy language to learn compared to alternatives. JavaScript enables users to write snippets of code which can extend the functionality of web pages. Being the de facto language of the web, Javascript is the most popular language in the world, is easy to learn and among one of the skills which unlocks some of the top paying tech occupations. Whilst Javascript has been around for some time, it is still considered by many as a key building block and a necessary weapon in the arsenal of developers and those interested in web development. Below includes some of the best free Javascript resources:

Javascript Courses

Intro to JavaScript

Basic JavaScript: Write Reusable JavaScript with Functions

A Beginner's Guide to JavaScript's Prototype


One of the server side programming languages on the list, PHP or Hypertext Pre-processor, earlier known as Personal Home Pages, is recognized as an increasingly fast and powerful language which works well on HTML and databases making it a great fit for anyone looking to build dynamic and malleable web applications. It is suggested that an understanding of HTML is beneficial prior to learning PHP. There has now been PHP 1,2,3,4 and 5, with development on this language a constant. Alongside websites and web application, PHP can also be used in cloud computing and Machine Learning. See further reading and free courses on PHP below:

C Programming

This general-purpose language is a staple for anything from operating systems to complex programmes and is often referred to as the 'base' for programming. Having learnt or practiced for some time on C based programming, it is widely suggested that you can move to many other languages. C programming, unlike some other languages has developed over time, initially recognized as ALGOL, to later form BCPL, B and then C in 1972. If you needed any greater push to learn C than it being recognized as an underlying language a majority of platforms, you should also consider that it allows for concentration on language semantics for a greater duration than others, it is somewhat simplistic and speedy, allows embedding programming and is a fairly pure language with limited distractions and a straight procedural method for learning. Some of the best resources for learning C are listed below:


R is a language which is best suited to programming and as a free software 'environment' for statistical learning. R is commonly used by statisticians, data analysts, researchers and marketers to retrieve, clean, analyze, visualize and to present data due to its expressive syntax and user friendly interface. R is a language increasing in popularity due to it being able to run on all platforms and also as it can open various employment opportunities within the data science community with past surveys suggesting that a median salary for someone with expert knowledge and application sitting near the $100k per annum mark. We have, as with the others, compiled a list of top resources below:

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